Europe and the Search for Peace After 1918

It was on the basis of these fourteen points that peace settlements were finally reached with the defeated nations – Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. Lee and M. Success in 20th Century World Affairs, 1984.

The League averted war in border disputes between Bulgaria and Greece (1925), Iraq and Turkey (1925-1926) and the conflict between Poland and Lithuania in 1920. The brief time lapse between the end of the war in November 1918 and the start of the Paris Peace Conference attests to the fact that the search for peace was top on the agenda of European leaders.

Europe Leads the Way in the Search For Peace

The Rise of the “Locarno Spirit”

The Birth of the League of Nations

The eruption of war in 1939 disproved the Eurocentric notion of peace in the 1920s. These hopes were, however, short-lived as the mutual distrust and suspicion inherent in the peace treaties started producing cracks on the entire system of “collective security.” Japanese aggression in Asia also revealed that European diplomacy was “inward looking” and neglected threats of war from outside. Within Europe itself, Adolf Hitler succeeded in destroying every structure that aimed at achieving peace – The Versailles Treaty, the League, Locarno and disarmament. The war had claimed 12 million lives, left 21 million people wounded and wrecked havoc on the entire economies of the belligerent states, especially those in Europe. It became clear to European statesmen that peace was the shortcut to recovery and reconciliation if future war was to be avoided.

These efforts at achieving peace raised considerable hopes in Europe in the 1920s. This was thanks to the effectiveness of the committees and commissions of the League. Total War: Causes and Courses of the Second World War, 1972.

Bens, F. At Locarno, German Chancellor Gustav Streseman kept hopes of peace alive by assuring the other parties that Germany’s eastern frontiers could be changed in future by peaceful means.

Meeting regularly at the League’s Council, the Locarno statesmen gave the League additional respect and prestige, and compromise replaced conflict. On Tuesday November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am on Marshall Ferdinand Foch’s railway carriage, an armistice was signed between the Allies and Germany. Perry again observes that this war was considered “the final war for human liberty.”

The League of Nations which saw the light of day on January 10, 1920 was founded on President Wilson’s call for a “general association of nations to guarantee the territorial integrity and political independence of all states.” The League was charged with the responsibility of settling international disputes and thus prevent war from breaking out again. These included; the Disarmament Commission, the Mandates Commission, the International Labor Organization and the Refugee Organization.

Calvocoressi, Peter and guy Wint. thought it reasonable to assume that the settlement of European problems would lead automatically to the settlement of world problems,” says historian Jack Watson. The Treaty of Versailles which dealt with Germany was the most significant in terms of its effects on subsequent developments in Europe and the world.. Neville Chamberlain, British Premier, picked on this groundwork of peace to fashion his policy of Appeasement by conceded to some of the demands of the disgruntled powers. With this, Germany conceded defeat and the First World War came to its end. This spirit of compromise inspired the Briand-Kellog Pact of 1928 by which 65 countries resolved never to go to war except in self defense. True to this calling, the League kept hopes of peace alive by creating an impressive record throughout the 1920s.

With a guilty conscience for starting the war, Europe assumed a leading role in searching for peace especially as the U.S had decided to stay aloof from world affairs in its new policy of isolationism. Besides conflicts, the League had a noticeable success in the areas of drug control, refugee work and famine relief.

Perry, Marvin et al. Elizabeth Seldon, Europe: 1914-1937, 1965.

With this mindset, Europe became the centre of global diplomacy after WW1. “Europeans … Efforts were also made to achieve disarmament.

It was with this economic burden that Europe and the rest of the world entered the second decade of the 20th century. The most important of the Locarno treaties was the “Rhineland Pact.” By its terms, Germany agreed to certain frontier adjustments with its neighbors especially France and Belgium. This failure notwithstanding, the diplomatic institutions of the interwar years (despite the changes they have undergone) still continue to shape European and world history till this day.

Despite their underlying hatred, mistrust and suspicion after Versailles, Britain and France drew closer to Germany in the Locarno Agreements of 1925. The result was the eruption of World War 11 in 1939.


The ravages of World War 1 convinced world leaders that a future war was to be avoided at all cost. Also, Europe alone bore the greatest burden in terms of destruction during the First World War. Because of this massive scale of destruction WW1 was seen as “a great turning point in the history of the West” according to historian Marvin Perry.

See also America and the Search for Peace After World War 1

The starting point for European peace was the Paris Conference based on a fourteen-point program laid down by U.S President Woodrow Wilson. Western Civilization, Ideas, Politics and Society Vol. 11 1989.

Watson, Jack

Famous Horse Racing Courses Around the World

There are in all three racetracks – the turf track measures 2083 meters, the dirt track measures 1899 meters, while the jump track measures 1675 meters. Apart from that, local horse races are held every weekend. Here is an account of few of the racecourses in South America.

? Hipódromo de San Isidro

Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina

Notable for: Gran Premio Carlos Pellegrini

The biggest racetrack in both North America and South America, Hipódromo de San Isidro was opened in 1935. When the figures skyrocket like that, it is only natural that everything about the event will be top-class; the training that the horses are put through, the diets they have to follow, and the ground they walk on. Horse racing has a history of over a couple thousand years, with the earliest record of horse domestication dating back to ca. Most of the racehorses that contest in the different racing events are bred in South Africa, though sometimes they may be imported from other countries too, especially from UK and France. If you are a great derby fan, you must, at least once in your lifetime, witness the Grand National at Aintree Racecourse. Nevertheless, horse races such as the Gran Premio Carlos Pellegrini in Argentina are quite popular and famous and draw audiences from all over the continent. It is the only track in North America that holds thoroughbred and standardbred races on the same day.

On the African continent, horse racing is primarily centered at Mauritius and South Africa. Horse racetracks require special care and maintenance, as much as – or even more than – the fields that host football, cricket, tennis and other sports. The Tokyo Racecourse also houses one of the largest video screens in the world.


Europe – particularly UK, France and Ireland – has a glorious and long history of horse racing, dating back to the early 18th century. It would be worth every penny to save up and go visit at least some of these racecourses once in your lifetime!

? Chantilly Racecourse

Location: Chantilly, Oise

Notable for: Prix du Jockey Club, Prix de Diane

Chantilly Racecourse hosts 2 of the 4 French Classics, viz., the Prix du Jockey Club, and the Prix de Diane. In itself, Champ de Mars Racecourse is the oldest racetrack in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Yes, you read that right! The single most important horse race in Australia is the Melbourne Cup, which has been dubbed the “race that stops a nation”. It is a 1 1/8 miles race held on a dirt track, one of the most important races for 3-year old horses held at Hastings annually. Given below is a brief account of world famous horse racing courses in Australia.

? Flemington Racecourse

Location: Flemington, Victoria

Notable for: The Melbourne Cup, Victoria Derby

Home to the Australian horse race with the highest purse, viz., The Melbourne Cup, the Flemington Racecourse boasts a 2312-meter long racetrack along which races are run anticlockwise, rather than clockwise. Also known as “The Heath” locally, races are held on the track for about 20 days in a year.

There is something about riding down the street on a prancing horse that makes you feel like something, even when you ain’t a thing.

~ Will Rogers

? Keeneland

Location: Lexington, Kentucky

Notable for: Blue Grass Stakes (G1)

Ranked #1 by the Horseplayers Association of North America in 2009, and included both in the National Register of Historic Places and list of National Historic Landmarks in the US, Keeneland is one of the best horse racing courses around the world. Leger (G1). It is held every April.

Horse racing events are held at horse racecourses, alternatively known as horse racetracks. These are also the races with the highest purses in Ireland. Though the first derby took place only in 1866, horse racing has been witnessed by this racecourse since as early as 1727.

? Ascot Racecourse

Location: Ascot, Berkshire

Notable for: King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes, Ascot Gold Cup

The Ascot Racecourse hosts a whopping 9 of the 32 annual G1 races in UK and is one of the élite horse racing courses in England. Aintree is home to the most definitive National Hunt steeplechase, the Grand National (which is also considered the most difficult steeplechase in the world, with 30 fences spread over a distance of 7,242 meters). It is home to the single most important horse race in Argentina, the Gran Premio Carlos Pellegrini. cool, isn’t it?

? Hipodromo La Rinconada

Location: Caracas, Venezuela

Notable for: Gran Premio Clásico Simón Bolívar (G1)

Claimed to be one of the most modern racetracks in the continent, Hipodromo La Rinconada was opened in 1959. Horse racing events are conducted in many countries across Asia, including India, Japan, Singapore, UAE, South Korea, etc.

? Tokyo Racecourse

Location: Tokyo, Japan

Notable for: Japan Cup, Tokyo Yushun (Japanese Derby), Yushun Himba (Japanese Oaks)

With seating provision to hold over 200,000 people at a time, the Tokyo Racecourse is undoubtedly the biggest in the world, in terms of seating capacity. It has a 1.28 mile main dirt track on which races are held and a 1.24 mile training track. It has a natural dirt track of 1 mile, and a shorter inner turf course. It is as it was, when built in 1879. Here are some of the famous racecourses of Africa.

? Turffontein Racecourse

Location: Johannesburg, South Africa

Notable for: South African Derby

Such is the racing course of this famous racetrack from Australia, that it is unanimously considered as the true test of a horse’s stamina. The track also boasts training and breeding facilities.

? Aintree Racecourse, England

Location: Aintree, Merseyside

Notable for: Grand National

There probably isn’t a single derby fan who hasn’t heard of the Aintree Racecourse; it is after all the most famous horse racing course in England. Santa Anita Park honors a chosen jockey with the George Woolf Memorial Jockey Award every year. Kildare

Notable for: Irish Derby (G1)

The name Curragh is a derivative of the Irish word Cuirreach, which means “racecourse”. The first ever racing meet of North America took place in the year 1665, under the supervision of the then New York’s colonial governor, Richard Nicolls, with the first racetrack being built in the same year. Apart from being a venue for these and other famous races, Randwick Racecourse has also been used as a location for shooting parts of the film Mission Impossible II, and is also used as a venue for the University of New South Wales exams! Fancy appearing for an exam in a racecourse … You will never forget the first time you rode a horse; you will always remember, in great detail, the time when you saw a herd of horses galloping along the countryside; and unless you have the means, you will always hope and wish to have a horse!

? Churchill Downs

Location: Louisville, Kentucky

Notable for: Kentucky Derby, Stephen Foster Handicap

The biggest racecourse (in terms of seating capacity), Churchill Downs is home to one of the races of the United States Triple Crown, the Kentucky Derby. Indeed, the horse racing courses around the world mentioned above are no less than the very best. Members of the Royal British Family attend the Royal Ascot (established in 1711 by Queen Anne) every year at the Ascot Racecourse.


? Caulfield Racecourse

Location: Caulfield, Victoria

Notable for: Caulfield Cup, Caulfield Guineas, Blue Diamond Stakes

One of the most popular horse racing courses in Australia, the Caulfield Racecourse is 2080 meters long, and shaped like a triangle, with 4% to 6% banking along the turns. The best time to visit Ascot would be in the months of June and July when two of its most prestigious races, viz., Ascot Gold Cup and King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes, are held. Each year, South Africa and Mauritius both attract enthusiasts from all over the world for the different racing events they host. ? Randwick Racecourse

Location: Eastern Suburbs, Sydney

Notable for: Australian Derby

Another illustrious racecourse in Australia, the Randwick Racecourse hosts many races like the Australian Derby, the AJC Oaks, AJC Queen Elizabeth Stakes (historically known as the Queen’s Plate). More than half of the G1 category races of France are held at Longchamp.

Although many world-class racecourses do exist in South America, horse racing as a sport is not so famous in South America, as it is in some other parts of the world. It is the single most prominent and prestigious horse racing event in Europe.

1] England

? Belmont Park

Location: Elmont, New York

Notable for: Belmont Stakes

Hosting the third leg of the United States Triple Crown “Belmont Stakes”, Belmont Park is also known as “The Champion Track”, owing to the fact that every champion in horse racing has competed at least once on the track. A statue of Secretariat was placed in the paddock of Belmont Park to honor him.

Historically, horse racing was a part of the ancient Greek Olympics, with chariot racing being the most popular Equestrian sport. The most important of the races held on the track is the Gran Premio José Pedro Ramírez. 4000 B.C.

? Hipodromo Nacional de Maroñas

Location: Montevideo, Uruguay

Notable for: Gran Premio José Pedro Ramírez

This racing track was opened in 1874. From something that began at an individual (or personal) level, horse racing has gone on to become one of the most popular and expensive sports ever. However, it wasn’t until the later half of the 18th century that the sport of horse racing gained a proper organized form. P. The racecourse also homes a 186-meter long stable, considered to be the finest and most beautiful in the world.

? Longchamp Racecourse (Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe)

Location: Route des Tribunes Bois de Boulogne, Paris

Notable for: Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe

Most famous for hosting the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (one of the four French Classics, held every October), the specialty of the Longchamp Racecourse is that it has several interlocked racetracks, thus providing for great variety in the racing distances. With a grandstand located right on top of the Pacific Ocean, it hosts races from July to September every year.

That should explain why anyone who likes animals, loves horses! The sheer strength, beauty and grace that a horse exhibits is unparalleled. Apart from horse racing, Keeneland is also popular for its horse auctions – held four times a year – and its exhaustive reference library on horse racing.

? Woodbine Racetrack

Location: Toronto, Ontario

Notable for: Canadian International Stakes (G1), Queen’s Plate (G1)

The track to host the first ever Summer Paralympics in 1976, Woodbine Racetrack has a total of three racecourses, since 1994 – the 1.5 mile E. Taylor thoroughbred turf course (named after famous business tycoon and breeder Edward “Eddie” Plunket Taylor); the inner 1 mile thoroughbred Polytrack; and the innermost 0.875 miles crushed limestone racecourse for Standardbred horses. Competitive endurance riding is also quite popular in Australia, with the Tom Quilty Gold Cup being the most coveted award. The year that it was founded, Champ de Mars Racecourse hosted the first organized race meeting in the history of Mauritius! With a total circumference of 1298 meters, it is a small racetrack, albeit a very popular one. It is held every December.

Contrary to popular belief, horse racing as a sport was established in North America almost two centuries before it was in the UK. The sound of the hoofs when the horse trots, the hypnotic sight of a horse grazing in the field, the adrenaline rush you experience at the sound and sight of a galloping horse, are feelings that will leave a lifelong impression on your mind’s eye. However, several forms of horse racing such as flat race, steeplechase (in which hurdles and fences are placed in the horse’s track), endurance riding, etc., have now been established and have gained immense popularity over the years.

? Champ de Mars Racecourse

Location: Port Louis, Mauritius

Notable for: Maiden Cup

Champ de Mars Racecourse is home to the third-oldest active horse-racing clubs in the world, viz., Mauritius Turf Club. The grandstand of this racecourse has never witnessed a renovation and/or reconstruction. It is also one of the richest races held at Hastings, with a purse of $250,000.

? Del Mar Racetrack

Location: Del Mar, California

Notable for: Del Mar Oaks (G1), Pacific Classic (G1)

With a 1 mile inner dirt track and a seven furlong outer turf course, the Del Mar Racetrack runs by the slogan “Where The Turf Meets The Surf”. The festival comprises four renowned races – Cheltenham Gold Cup, Champion Hurdle, Queen Mother Champion Chase and Stayers Hurdle. The main course of Chantilly is 2400 meters long. To give you a rough idea, the Meydan Racecourse of Dubai, UAE took an estimated $2 billion to be built! No doubt, derby is an expensive affair.

There are many top-class racecourses around the world, some as old as modern-day horse racing itself, and some only as young as the minimum age of a racing horse! Here is an account of famous horse racing courses from around the world.

Not many people know that the Australian thoroughbred horse racing industry ranks #3 in the world. It was founded in 1887.

? Hastings Racecourse

Location: Vancouver, British Columbia

Notable for: British Columbia Breeders’ Cup Derby (G3)

Hastings Racecourse was opened in the year 1889 and is home to British Columbia Breeders’ Cup Derby. It has been listed in the United States National Register of Historic Places.

Horse racing began as a personal form of transport. Included in the Australian National Heritage List in 2006, Flemington hosts most of the important Australian horse racing events.

3] France

? North America

? South America

? Europe

? Australia

? Africa

? Asia


Though there may be fewer “world famous” horse racing courses in Asia than in other parts of the world per se, horse racing is still quite an established sport in Asia. It is also claimed to be the world’s only racecourse to host a luxury 5-star trackside hotel, The Meydan. Here are some of the most famous horse racing courses in America.


Given the emotions we associate with horses, it isn’t difficult to understand the popularity of Equestrian sports – right from show jumping, to dressage, to perhaps the most popular form of Equestrian sport, horse racing. With an inner as well as an outer turf, Turffontein hosts the G1 South African Derby and the Summer Cup every November. This is another place you absolutely should visit!

? Meydan Racecourse

Location: Dubai, UAE

Notable for: Dubai World Cup

One of the most élite and the youngest racetracks in the world in its class, the Meydan Racecourse hosts a 1750-meter long, all-weather Tapeta track and a 2400-meter long Turf track. The most popular form of horse racing in Europe is steeplechase (wherein horses have to jump over hurdles or fences). It is a 1.49 miles race, held on Three Kings’ Day every year. The racecourse sports a bronze statue of Phar Lap, a magnificent racehorse trained in Australia. It has a 2,783 meter long turf, on which 1000-meter long races are held. Horses were used by our forefathers as beasts of burden too. There is a lot that goes into building a state-of-the-art racecourse. (The second race of the Triple Crown is the Preakness Derby held at Pimlico Race Course, and the third is the Belmont Stakes held at Belmont Park.) Built in 1875, it was designated a National Historic Landmark a 111 years later, in 1986. In fact, horse racing as such is a very popular sport in Mauritius.

2] Ireland

? Santa Anita Park

Location: Arcadia, California

Notable for: Santa Anita Handicap (G1), Santa Anita Derby (G1)

Santa Anita Park is unanimously called the most beautiful horse racing course in the world, with the simultaneous massive and magnificent backdrop of the San Gabriel Mountains. The racecourse also houses a Museum of Arts, and the famous Alejandro Otero El Polyhedron.

? Curragh Racecourse, Ireland

Location: Newbridge, Co. Along with Gran Premio Clásico Simón Bolívar (G1), the Hipica Gala event hosted by this racetrack is also of prominence. Competitive horse racing in UK is collectively called the National Hunt, or simply ‘The National’. The legendary horse Secretariat set one of the two world records on this very racetrack – his Belmont Stakes victory of 2 minutes 24 seconds remains undefeated to date. He set his Kentucky Derby world record (1 minute 592/5 seconds) on the Churchill Downs racetrack. The racecourse also houses a clubhouse and a museum, and is undoubtedly one of the best horse racing courses around the world.

? Cheltenham Racecourse

Location: Cheltenham, Gloucestershire

Notable for: Cheltenham Gold Cup, Champion Hurdle

With a natural amphitheater along the escarpment of the Cotswolds hills, the Cheltenham Racecourse is as much popular for its scenic beauty as it is for hosting one of the most important and élite horse racing events, the Cheltenham Festival. The dirt track on which the derby is held, measures 1 mile in circumference and runs around the inner turf course. The facility also includes a casino and café.. It has a 1710 m dirt track and a 1509 m turf. The racecourse hosts all the five classic Irish horse racing events, viz., Irish 1,000 Guineas (G1), Irish 2,000 Guineas (G1), Irish Derby (G1), Irish Oaks (G1) and finally the Irish St. In its second year (i.e., in the year 1938) Del Mar hosted the historic race between racehorses Seabiscuit and Ligaroti, which went on to become the first race to be broadcast on NBC radio. The Steeplechasing Hall of Fame is also housed at Cheltenham Racecourse. The kind of money that flows through the hands of people involved in the horse racing industry will make you dizzy! To give you a very rough idea: as of 2010, there were well over 8000 people in Great Britain who collectively had over 14,000 race horses in training, and the total prize money involved in horse racing that year was a whopping £99 million! By the way, this is just Great Britain we are talking about

Arsene Wenger blasts TV schedule as Arsenal’s FA Cup semi-final clashes with Chelsea against Manchester United

‘We learned from Wigan last year. It’s a very big game (at Chelsea). ‘I like every manager and respect, everybody. I find that circus a bit ridiculous.

Arsenal play Reading in FA Cup semi-final on Saturday evening 

Chelsea kick off against Manchester United 10 minutes later

Wenger says ‘something should be done’ and ‘it is difficult to understand’

Arsenal manager also brands circus around Jurgen Klopp ‘ridiculous’

Klopp announce on Wednesday he will leave Dortmund this summer 

By Matt Barlow for MailOnline

‘It’s my 10th semi-final and that means we know how to prepare but it’s always tricky,’ he added. . They have a big history linked with great results and great achievements so I don’t think that will stop for Dortmund.’ 

Wenger has branded the ‘circus’ around Jurgen Klopp’s resignation as ‘ridiculous’ 

Klopp confirmed on Wednesday his intention to leave Dortmund at the end of the season after seven years in which the club won two Bundesliga titles and reached the Champions League final.


Arsenal will take on Reading on Saturday evening as league leaders Chelsea take on Manchester United at Stamford Bridge.

Arsene Wenger says something must be done to solve the fixture scheduling mess which means Arsenal’s FA Cup semi-final will clash with a key Premier League title game.

Arsene Wenger: Circus surrounding Jurgen Klopp is ridiculous

Santi Cazorla and Aaron Ramsey could star for Arsenal in their FA Cup semi-final with Reading

Mesut Ozil pictured during Arsenal’s training session ahead of their match with Reading on Saturday

The Gunners boss also branded rumours that he will be replaced by Borussia Dortmund manager Jurgen Klopp as ‘ridiculous’, after the German announced he will be leaving the club this summer.  

Wenger hit out at the TV scheduling as Manchester United’s trip to Chelsea clashes with the semi-final

Wenger confirmed that second-choice keeper Wojciech Szczesny will start at Wembley on Saturday

Arsenal will take on Reading on Saturday as league leaders Chelsea take on Manchester United at home

Arsenal scored late on last season to earn a draw at this stage against another Championship side Wigan

Arsene Wenger says something must be done to solve the fixture scheduling mess in England

On TV scheduling, Wenger said: ‘Something should be done. It’s difficult to understand.’ 

Lukas Fabianski was the hero last season as the Gunners reached the final via a penalty shootout

Wenger admits a United win at Chelsea could open up the title race again. There’s a little conflict there. ‘Mathematically yes,’ he said. I’m surprised a game of the same stature is played at the same time. Wojciech Szczesny will start in the tie, and was also put through his paces during Arsenal’s training session.

Arsene Wenger blasts FA Cup vs Premier League TV schedule

Published: 08:57 GMT, 16 April 2015 | Updated: 15:29 GMT, 16 April 2015

It sparked a frenzy of speculation about whether the charismatic 47-year-old might be destined for England with Arsenal or Manchester City, where manager Manuel Pellegrini is feeling the heat after a poor run of form. 

‘I’m not an agency to place managers,’ said Wenger, when asked about Klopp’s announcement. It’s always a special occasion to share with our fans. It’s a surprise to me.’ 

‘It’s down to every club to make the right decision and to respect Dortmund. We want them to go home happy.’

The Gunners boss says his team have learned from last season, when they fell behind at this stage against Wigan and needed penalties to beat the Championship side.



Dortmund manager Jurgen Klopp oversees training on Thursday ahead of this weekend’s match



‘We would like it to be a unique competition that’s played, especially a semi-final or final and don’t want it to be conflicting with other competitions. I’m surprised they don’t analyse it in the TV deals. Dortmund is a massive club and will survive, they have the ability to keep their best players. ‘But we have to keep winning.’ 

Szczesny will start for Wenger on Saturday when Arsenal try to book their place in the FA Cup final

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Jack Wilshere, who played against Reading U21s this week, will be fit to face the Championship side


Alexis Sanchez (left) tries to escape Per Mertesacker during Arsenal’s training session on Thursday

Arsenal will have Jack Wilshere available for the semi-final against Reading, as he trained on Thursday with the club at their base

The Good, the Bad, the Ugly

Due to the large territory Russia has the biggest reserve of natural resources in the world including oil, natural gas, minerals and chemicals. Some of the world’s greatest artists are from Russia, they have wonderful music and their cosine is something special. Conducting successful business without the right connections might be quite difficult. Today Russia is a democratic, yet very controversial country with a population of more than 140 million which is actually not that much considering the territory of Russia. Moscow is the capital of Russia with more than 10 million people calling it their home; it is also the largest city in Europe and 7th largest in the world. Most of the Russian population live in the European part of Russia. But in a way it can be understandable and it is symptomatic fore all Post – Soviet nations. And let’s not forget the Vodka which is a crucial part of the Russian soul.

Russia is the largest country in the world as it covers two continents – Europe and Asia. Its has a very colorful historical background by being founded by Vikings, ruled by various tsars, the wrath of both World Wars and almost hundred year rule of communists. Let’s give Russia the time to mature.. But Siberia is also the place with all the valuable resources and although the average wage in Russia is quite low, people who are willing to work in the harsh conditions receive a good salary.

Russia is truly the land of unlimited opportunities where with the right connection and decisions everyone can become a millionaire or even a billionaire. On the other the population in Siberia is very sparse with most population concentrated in the biggest cities such as Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Omsk.

Nevertheless Russia is a wonderful country with a lot to see and experience. Well it may sound cheesy, but as they say in Russia everything is possible.

The main problems in Russia are corruption and criminal situation. Corruption is very wide spread even up to the highest chain of government. After the fall of the Soviet Union people were suddenly exposed to almost unlimited opportunities and they use every possible tool to succeed in this new world order.

Whatever you might think of Russia remember one thing, in a way it is yet a very young country – a teenager among other democratic countries

Daniel Shak wins big at the Party Poker Premier League, comments on Twitter – Los Angeles Social Media

He would eventually need all of those starting chips as Shak faced a very difficult field at the final table. The two players who finish fourth and fifth in each group then play a heads up match for the right to join the other six players at the final table. In addition to having great success at the poker table, Shak was also signed as a member of “Team Ivey” and joined the poker training website started by well-known poker professional Phil Ivey.

Daniel Shak had a relatively easy time making the final table as he finished in second place during heat 1, first place during heat 2, third place in heat 3 and fifth in heat 4, earning 39 points in the process. This made-for-TV event features 16 players who bought in for $125,000 each. This setup allows for a poker player’s skill to present itself rather than being eliminated after one unlucky hand during a traditional poker tournament while simultaneously making it one of the more difficult poker tournaments of the year.

In a testament to just how difficult this poker tournament was, Shak would later go on to post on his Twitter account, “Don’t think I’ve ever played in a tougher field with a tougher format. The 16 players are separated into two groups of eight and play four separate “heats.” Players then earn points based on their performance in each of the four “heats,” which in turn are used to determine who makes the final table and what the chip count of each player will be at the final table.

The Party Poker Premier League VI is as unique of a poker tournament that you will see all year. Shak’s rivered two pair eliminated Esfandiari when he held a pair of nines while Shak’s queen high flush was the crushing blow for Sam Trickett as he lost nearly all of his chips with just two pair and would be eliminated on the very next hand.. Those 39 points allowed Shak to start in third place with a sizable chip advantage over half of the final table. However, things got even better recently when his string of close calls and final table finishes came to an end with his victory in the Party Poker Premier League VI.

After watching several players get eliminated, Shak found himself three-handed with Antonio Esfandiari and Sam Trickett. With a fourth place finish at the Aussie Millions, eighth place finish in the $100,000 Super High Roller at the PokerStars Caribbean Adventure, a cash in the LAPC main event and a second place finish in the 10,000-pound eight-game championship at EPT London under his belt, things appeared to be as good as they could get for Shak. Grueling doesn’t even come close.”

With the Party Poker Premier League VI victory, Shak added $450,000 to his 2013 winnings total, which is his fourth six-figure win already this year. Professional poker players Antonio Esfandiari, Jonathan Duhamel, Daniel Cates and Jennifer Tilly were just some of the players at the final table.

2013 has been quite a year already for poker player Daniel Shak

Famous People from China

He also went on to improve the paper-making process by using various materials to improve the quality of paper. The teachings do not have any particular rules, rather it emphasizes on building the personality, morals, and skill of judgment in a person. His work freed China from the shackles of the Cultural Revolution and made the country into a major power in world economy and greatly increased the standard of living for the citizens of the country.

Professor Yuan Longping was given the moniker ‘Father of hybrid rice’ in 1974 after he genetically engineered a high yielding variety of rice plant. These people help to remind us of the cultural contributions that the Chinese civilization has made to the world.

He is a physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics, in 2009, for contribution to works related to “transmission of light in fibers for optical communication”. This is now a national monument of modern China.

He was a Chinese philosopher who is widely considered to be the founder of Taoism. Despite all of his good work, he was detained and deported to China in the 1950s on the suspicion of being a communist sympathizer, which was later considered to be a great mistake by most people. He ranks among the best astronauts that China has ever trained, and it is his dream that he can inspire Chinese youth to participate in space related professions.

Hu Jintao

1942 -


Li Shizhen

1518 – 1593

Physician, Scientist

Zhang Ziyi is an actress well-known in the west for her roles in movies like Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Memoirs of a Geisha and Rush Hour 2. In his writing he criticized tradition and advocated people to embrace modernization. On this mission Yang traveled 500,000 kilometers and orbited the earth fourteen times. Recently his work has been adopted by many other nations across the world. Confucius thought that politics too should be run under similar principles. Zhu Yuanzhang was a peasant who rose to power and became the founder as well as the first emperor of the Ming dynasty in 1368. People from China have made a name for themselves and their country in various fields, like philosophy, science, sport, etc.

A few of the important and famous Chinese people have been listed below, in no particular order.

Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese military and political leader who was the head of the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) and he also led the Chinese Nationalist government between 1928 and 1949. He worked to organize the political and military administration of Mao Zedong from the 1920s to 1950s. He also made minor reforms on education, finance, and infrastructure of the country, along with reviving Confucianism. She wrote many articles on China for the American press.

He is the first Chinese to win an Olympic gold medal in track and field. Sun Yat-sen felt that the Qing Dynasty was holding the country back in comparison to other countries that were more technologically advanced, due to its conservative ideologies. His reforms greatly increased agricultural production across the country and made good inroads to tie up with the west, by allowing Chines industrialists to make good foreign investments. These teachings had an immense influence upon people across China, and its effects are felt even today.

Through this list, we can gauge from the names mentioned and their work, the variety of domains in which people from China have excelled through the ages. He changed many systems of administration and worked on the concepts of agriculture and economy by standardizing the currency, laws, education, taxation, and trade values. His government in the region of Taiwan was recognized by many countries across the globe as the official government of China even after he was exiled from the mainland by the communists in 1949. Historians have been unable to validate facts on much of his life. Internationally, his government was seen as over-aggressive as far as exerting its power was concerned, especially with its neighbors in South-east Asia.

Liu Xiang

1983 -


. His administration was responsible for the modernization of a lot of infrastructure in the country, and even sent up the country’s first manned spaceprobe. Although initially loved by most people across the nation, his unrealistic policies of the ‘Great Leap Forward’ and ‘Cultural Revolution’ caused the deaths of millions of people and the destruction of the cultural heritage of China, leading to widespread anarchy.

Confucius was a prominent teacher, politician, and philosopher in ancient China. With all this China had announced itself as a superpower.


Zhou Dynasty (5th – 4th Century BC


One of China’s most-recognizable athletes and an icon for youth, Yao Ming played in the Nation Basketball Association (NBA) and for China at international events. A. On October 15, 2003, he was launched into space on board the Shenzhou V, bringing China into the small group of countries to have accomplished this feat. China has a history of imperialism, and more recently, it went on to adopt communism. Kao

1933 -

Engineer, Physicist

Yao Ming

1980 -

Basketball Player

Yuan Longping

1931 -


During the reign of the Ming dynasty, China is believed to have seen one of the most organized, stable and influential phases in its history. Therefore, he founded the Chinese Nationalist Party, became the first president of the republic and was the de facto ruler of the country until his death. Abdul Kalam (President of India: 2002 to 2007)

Yang Liwei

1965 -

Military Pilot, Astronaut

Qian Xuesen was a rocket scientist, whose immense contributions to China’s missile programs earned himself the name as the ‘Father of China’s missile and space technology program’. She addressed the Congress in 1943, and was given the moniker “Madame Chiang”. After the fall of the Qin Dynasty this thought process was sanctioned officially as a system called Confucianism. Currently more than half the rice grown in China is of this variety, which gives around 40% more yield than regular rice crops. She initially studied dance at the Beijing Dance Academy and later took up acting.

Deng Xiaoping was a very prominent communist leader in the People’s Republic of China from the 1970s till his death in 1997. He played an prominent role in the planning phase of the second manned space flight mission. Later, his ideas would greatly influence the building of the first US space shuttle. Not only this. When archaeologists excavated his tomb in 1974 they unearthed thousands of terracotta soldiers and war horses form the site. He helped in the interrogations of Nazi scientists in technical matters. His existence is often debated, but it is thought that he lived during 4th century BC. He believed that ruling the populace through morality is better than bribes and corruption, and that a ruler should always lead by example. He joined the People’s Liberation Army in 1983 and is now Deputy Director of the China Astronaut Research and Training Center and also Deputy Director General of China’s manned space program. After a terrible famine in the 1960s he has constantly worked on improving the yield and quality of the rice crop. He achieved this feat at the 2004 Athens Olympics at the age of 21. However, due to the increasing differences between the ideologies of the two men, he was attacked by supporters of Mao and removed from his post of power from the party. He is primarily credited in reunifying most of the Chinese lands under various warlords, as well as, fighting the Japanese and communism during the period of the second world war. Both his parents were professional basketball players as well. His success in this field has made him into one of the richest men in China. He also made notable contributions towards the ‘Manhattan Project’. She has been nominated for the Golden Globe and BAFTA awards. P. Be it the ancient philosophy of Confucius, or the modern-day athletic brilliance of Liu Xiang, Chinese people have made a mark through the ages. Due to foot and ankle injuries, he announced his retirement in 2011. He continued his reign till his death in 1398.

Cai Lun

50 – 121

Politician, Inventor

Hu Jintao was the president of the People’s Republic of China from 2003 to 2013. However, he is also known to be a cruel and dictatorial king in many cases, such as ordering the destruction of all books and manuscripts which originated in previous regimes across the nation. He authored the Tao Te Ching, which is the basis for the philosophies of Taoism. He went on study at the University of Greenwich and University College of London. J. Confucianism supported a lot of the traditional Chinese beliefs such as loyalty to family, worship of elders, ancestors, and gods. He is credited with having compiled information about the various traditional Chinese medicines into one book called Bencao Gangmu. He brought about many revolutionary changes in industry, and with the help of allies in Japan, Russia, and the west, he turned the nation into a significant power. The communists under Mao and the KMT under Chiang Kai-shek were temporarily allied against Japan during World War Two, but afterward, civil war broke out between them, which ended with the communists as victors. Taoism is essentially a philosophy that stresses the need to live in harmony with the Tao. His work was used to develop the ‘jet-assisted take off technology’ for the US Bombers in World War Two. He began playing for the Houston Rockets in 2002 and had a highly successful career. He is widely credited for overseeing China’s consistent economic growth for a decade, that even did exceptionally well during the global financial crisis, which has made it the major world power that it is today. He has endorsed several brands like Nike, Coca Cola, etc.

Chiang Kai-shek

1887 – 1975

Politician, Military Commander

Kangxi Emperor ruled over China for the longest period in Chinese history, from 1661 to 1722. He was the first to write his works in the modern, colloquial medium of language, most of which is read and influences people even today. She was a competent yet shrewd ruler who went to great lengths to stay in power. Yuan has primarily focused on increasing the yield of rice rather than the taste, although quality was not completely ignored. It is a civilization that dates back thousands of years, and is at present one of the emerging superpowers of the world. He is thus a source of pride for China. His research was also instrumental in the success of the nations first manned space flight. He was the second ruler from the Qing dynasty to rule China. He widely encouraged young writers and artists, and he was very interested in woodblock printing which showed the problems and suffering of the society.

Qian Xuesen

1911 – 2009


Lu Xun/Zhou Shuren

1881 – 1936

Novelist, Poet

China is situated in the continent of Asia, and is currently the world’s most populous country. He started the Yuan Longping Foundation to provide support to people working in researching agriculture. Mao declared the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). He was born in Shanghai in 1933 and in his teenage years moved to Hong Kong. However, he passed away before it was published officially. At 7 feet 6 inches, he was the tallest player in the NBA during his final season, and the third tallest in the history of NBA.

He is credited with having invented the paper which was similar to the current form of paper that we use. Among these reforms the most prominent ones were a family-planning program to control the ever-increasing population of the nation, and decentralizing the economy to control it more easily and make it more efficient. Some of his most acclaimed works include ‘A Madman’s Diary’ and ‘The True Story of Ah-Q’, which are widely ready even today. For his efforts he was awarded the World Food Prize in 2004. Cai Lun was born around 50 AD and served as a court eunuch during the Han dynasty.

Qin Shi Huang

259 – 210 BC


Chairman Mao Zedong

1893 – 1976

Communist Revolutionary, Founding Father of the People’s Republic of China

Zhu Yuanzhang

1328 – 1398


Charles K. He built the Great Wall of China to repel the barbarian invasions from the north, build great networks of roads and fortification all across his kingdom. He is widely regarded as a great emperor under whose rule the kingdom stabilized and prospered for several years.

Kangxi Emperor

1654 – 1722


Confucius/Kung Fu Tzu

551 – 479 BC

Teacher, Politician, Philosopher

Yang Liwei, was the first person from China to be sent into space. She ruled from the year 690 to 705. Chiang Kai-shek’s wife, Soong Mei-ling, became a significant political persona. Recently he was promoted to become a Major General. Emperor Qin Shi Huang was the first emperor of China. This loss of the USA was China’s gain, because now he used his knowledge in greatly furthering China’s ballistic missile plans which resulted in the success of the Dongfeng nuclear missile in 1964 and successive versions. He returned to power in 1977 after the death of Mao Zedong, after which he made several economic and social reforms. His work also help China launch its first satellite into orbit. He based his rule upon the ideals of nationalism, democracy, and the regulation of money and land rights.

Wu Zetian

624 – 705


Sun Yat-sen

1866 – 1925

Founding Father of the People’s Republic of China, First President

Mao was a Chinese communist leader and the founder of the People’s Republic of China. He was an extremely prominent person in the history of 20th century China. He is primarily remembered for building the Great Wall of China, and his tomb with the terracotta army. After returning to Earth he was given the rank of Vice Commander in Chief to the manned space flight project of the country. However, his philosophy has been widely documented, which mainly emphasizes on the morality, sincerity, and justice of people in administrative and social relationships. He also helped the US to create their first solid fuel propellant missile. Sun Yat-sen who is known as the father of modern China, is remembered as a prominent revolutionary who brought down the Qing Dynasty and set the foundations for the formation of the Republic of China. At the young age of 20 he was teaching at High profile American institutes such as MIT and Caltech, where he started experimenting in the nascent field of rocketry. He currently hold citizenship for United States and United Kingdom.

Wu Zetian was the only woman emperor in Chinese history. Several people, over the decades, have played an important role in making China the nation it is today. Some of his literature is used in Chinese schooling too. The book took him nearly three decades to compile and it is considered one of the greatest works on traditional Chinese medicine. He was responsible for the disastrous policies of the ‘Great Leap Forward’ and the ‘Cultural Revolution’. He was born in 1980 in Shanghai. He also killed or banished anyone who opposed his point of view. Being the first emperor, he greatly influenced the history and culture of the newly formed nation. He was born in 1518 and died in 1593.

Deng Xiaoping

1904 – 1997


Dr. He held many important positions in the Chinese government all his life, notably, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, Chairman of the PRC Central Military Commission, First Secretary of the Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China, Vice President of the People’s Republic of China, and First Secretary of the Communist Youth League of China. It is his dream to have a world where no one will suffer from a shortage of food.

He was a herbalist and a medical expert. Mao Zedong and the modern communist party of the country had embraced his works. He also held the record for fastest time in 110 meter hurdles from 2006 to 2008. Tao refers to the energy which is the driving force behind everything that exists.

Lu Xun is the pen name of Zhou Shuren, who was one of the most famous Chinese authors. Her reign is often criticized, however this is seen as a result of her having been a woman who held a powerful position.

Zhang Ziyi

1979 -

Model, Actress

One lesson that every nation can learn from China is to focus more on creating village-level enterprises, quality health services and educational facilities.




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Never commit to the lay betting system except you can cowl individuals losses.


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four.Be ready for your possibility of obtaining your shedding horse gain major once you use a lay betting method. Whilst it could possibly be easy to spot a poorly performing horse on the finish of their career, it’s a lot more lucrative to lay a horse that truly incorporates a history for winning, but could be the sufferer of poorly assigned odds.

Inside of a horse lay betting process, you truly bet about the horse you believe will forfeit, which will increase your possibilities for good results. A lot of oddsmakers and bookies are reluctant to spot lays, given that they understand the method.

a couple of.Browse the “Daily Racing Sort” in order to consider race final results, which will assist you handicap horses primarily based for the lay betting process. It is possible to also locate it online (see Resources below).. Just as you will have the ability to produce a fortune when a particular horse wins a race, it’s equally likely which the lay horse could possibly gain, which could add nearly a somewhat hefty loss. The “Daily Racing Type,” that is certainly provided at most newsstands and racing venues, can assist you pinpoint horses that are not performing at their finest. With lay betting, you can should undertake a invert strategy for evaluating horses and racing circumstances by seeking out certain horses that you know will forfeit. I genuinely hope this uncomplicated The 5 Stage Lay Review will assist you to differentiate whether The five Phase Lay is Scam or possibly a Real.

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a few.Apply choosing out sacrificing horses dependant on odds. This is often accomplished by studying what sort of horse performs under specific climate or monitor ailments and determining no matter if there is a certain lack of synergy amongst the horse and also the jockey.


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five.Make utilization of an internet horse betting resource, just like the Go Horse Betting website, for your lay betting program (see Solutions below)